Continued from part 1
- Extensive commercial grain cultivation: it practiced in inner parts of semi-arid lands of the mid-latitudes.
- Wheat is main crop .corn; barley, oats, and rye are also grown. Large size form
- Mostly operations are mechanized
- Best developed in Eurasian steppes, the Canadian and American prairies, and the pampas of Argentina, the veld of South Africa, Australian downs and Canterbury plains of NEW ZEALAND.
- Mixed farming
- Found in the highly developed parts of the word like north-western Europe, Eastern North America, Parts of Eurasia and the temperature latitudes of southern continents.
- Moderate in size and crops are wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize, fodder and root crops. Fodder crops are important component.
- Crop rotation and intercropping to main soil-fertility
- Equal emphasis is laid on crop cultivation and animal husbandry. cattle,sheeps,pigs and poultry provide incomes
- High capital expenditure on farm machinery and on fertilizers, buildings, bio-green manures and training of farmers/workers.
- It is most advanced and efficient type of rearing of milch animals.
- Highly capital intensive
- Cost carried for Animal sheds , storage facilities for fodder ,feeding and milching machines
- Special attention to cattle breeding, health care and veterinary services.
- High labor intensive, practiced in urban and industrial center for markets.
- Transportation, refrigeration, pasteurization and other preservation process have increased product life.
- There are 3 main regions of commercial dairy farming.
- Largest is North western Europe
- Second is Canada.
- Third Belt includes Australia, New Zealand and Tasmania.
- Highly specialized commercial agriculture
- Practiced in countries on either side of Mediterranean sea in Europe and in north Africa from Tunisia to Atlantic Coast ,southern California ,central chile , south western part of south Africa and south and south-western parts of Australia.
- Important supplier of citrus fruit.
- Viticulture or grape cultivation is its specialty
- Also produce olive oils and figs.
- Great market place in European and North American markets.
Market Gardening and Horticulture
- Specialize in cultivation of high value crops like fruit, vegetable and flowers.
- Farms are small and located near good transportation points where good market is available.
- Labor and capital intensive
- Emphasis on irrigation, HYV seeds, fertilizers, insecticides, green houses and artificial heating in colder regions.
- Located in well developed densely populated industrialized districts of north-west Europe, north eastern US and Mediterranean regions.
- The Netherlands specializes in growing flowers which have a great market in Europe.
- Vegetable specialization is known as truck farming.
- Found in Western Europe and North America in its industrial regions.
- Livestock (poultry and cattle) in stalls and pens.
- Fed manufactured feedstuffs and carefully supervise against diseases.
- Require heavy capital investments
- Require breed selection and scientific breeding to get more production.
Further categorization of farming:
- Co-operative farming : a group of farmers involved commercially
- Practiced in western European countries like Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Italy etc.
- Collective farming: based on social ownership of the means of production and collective labour.
- Introducing in Russia : model named as KOLKHOZ model of farming.
- Actual development of mining began with industrial revolution and continuous increasing.
- Factors affecting mining activity
- Physical factors include size, grade and mode of occurrence of deposits.
- Economic factors such as demand for the mineral, technology available and used. Capital to develop infrastructure and the labor and transport cost.
Modes of mining:
- Depends upon the mode of occurrence and the nature of the ore
- Mainly of two types: surface and underground mining.
- Surface mining is known as the Open-cast mining. Easiest and cheapest way to mine. Overhead cost is less and output is large and rapid.
- When the ore lies deep below the surface , Underground mining method (shaft method) is used
- Require specially designed lifts, drills, haulage vehicles, ventilation system for safety and efficient movement of people and material.
- It is risky and dangers to accidents are more.
- It is main source of income of many Asian and African countries.