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NCERT 12 Human geography Chap 5: Primary Activities part II

Continued from part 1

  1. Extensive commercial grain cultivation: it practiced in inner parts of semi-arid lands of the mid-latitudes.
  2. Wheat is main crop .corn; barley, oats, and rye are also grown. Large size form
  3. Mostly operations are mechanized
  4. Best developed in Eurasian steppes, the Canadian and American prairies, and the pampas of Argentina, the veld of South Africa, Australian downs and Canterbury plains of NEW ZEALAND.
  5. Mixed farming

Mixed farming:

  1. Found in the highly developed parts of the word like north-western Europe, Eastern North America, Parts of Eurasia and the temperature latitudes of southern continents.
  2. Moderate in size and crops are wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize, fodder and root crops. Fodder crops are important component.
  3. Crop rotation and intercropping to main soil-fertility
  4. Equal emphasis is laid on crop cultivation and animal husbandry. cattle,sheeps,pigs and poultry provide incomes
  5. High capital expenditure on farm machinery and on fertilizers, buildings, bio-green manures and training of farmers/workers.

Dairy Farming:

  1. It is most advanced and efficient type of rearing of milch animals.
  2. Highly capital intensive
  3. Cost carried for Animal sheds , storage facilities for fodder ,feeding and milching machines
  4. Special attention to cattle breeding, health care and veterinary services.
  5. High labor intensive, practiced in urban and industrial center for markets.
  6. Transportation, refrigeration, pasteurization and other preservation process have increased product life.
  7. There are 3 main regions of commercial dairy farming.
  8. Largest is North western Europe
  9. Second is Canada.
  10. Third Belt includes Australia, New Zealand and Tasmania.

Mediterranean Agriculture

  1. Highly specialized commercial agriculture
  2. Practiced in countries on either side of Mediterranean sea in Europe and in north Africa from Tunisia to Atlantic Coast ,southern California ,central chile , south western part of south Africa and south and south-western parts of Australia.
  3. Important supplier of citrus fruit.
  4. Viticulture or grape cultivation is its specialty
  5. Also produce olive oils and figs.
  6. Great market place in European and North American markets.

Market Gardening and Horticulture

  1. Specialize in cultivation of high value crops like fruit, vegetable and flowers.
  2. Farms are small and located near good transportation points where good market is available.
  3. Labor and capital intensive
  4. Emphasis on irrigation, HYV seeds, fertilizers, insecticides, green houses and artificial heating in colder regions.
  5. Located in well developed densely populated industrialized districts of north-west Europe, north eastern US and Mediterranean regions.
  6. The Netherlands specializes in growing flowers which have a great market in Europe.
  7. Vegetable specialization is known as truck farming.

Factory farming:

  1. Found in Western Europe and North America in its industrial regions.
  2. Livestock (poultry and cattle) in stalls and pens.
  3. Fed manufactured feedstuffs and carefully supervise against diseases.
  4. Require heavy capital investments
  5. Require breed selection and scientific breeding to get more production.

Further categorization of farming:

  1. Co-operative farming : a group of farmers involved commercially
  2. Practiced in western European countries like Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Italy etc.
  3. Collective farming: based on social ownership of the means of production and collective labour.
  4. Introducing in Russia : model named as KOLKHOZ model of farming.


  1. Actual development of mining began with industrial revolution and continuous increasing.
  2. Factors affecting mining activity
  • Physical factors include size, grade and mode of occurrence of deposits.
  • Economic factors such as demand for the mineral, technology available and used. Capital to develop infrastructure and the labor and transport cost.

Modes of mining:

  1. Depends upon the mode of occurrence and the nature of the ore
  2. Mainly of two types: surface and underground mining.
  3. Surface mining is known as the Open-cast mining. Easiest and cheapest way to mine. Overhead cost is less and output is large and rapid.
  4. When the ore lies deep below the surface , Underground mining method (shaft method) is used
  5. Require specially designed lifts, drills, haulage vehicles, ventilation system for safety and efficient movement of people and material.
  6. It is risky and dangers to accidents are more.
  7. It is main source of income of many Asian and African countries.





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