- People can be distinguished by their age, sex and place of residence.
Other distinguishing attributes of the population are occupation, education and life-expectancy.
- The number of women and men in a country is an important demographic characteristic.
- The ratio between the number of women and men in the population is called sex-ratio.
it is calculated in some country by this formula sex ratio = ( male population /female population )*1000 or the number of males per thousand females
- In India ,the sex ratio is worked out using the formula
sex ratio = ( female population /male population) or the number of females per thousand males
- The sex-ratio is important information about status of women in a country.
- The world population reflects a sex ratio of 990 females per 1000 males.
- The highest sex-ratio is recorded in the world in Latvia which is 1187 females per 1000 males
- The lowest sex-ratio is recorded in the world in U.A.E which is 468 female per 1000 males.
- The world pattern of sex-ratio does not exhibit variations in the developed regions of the world.
- The sex-ratio is favorable for female in 139 countries. And unfavorable for females in 72 countries.
- Asia has a lower sex-ratio.
- China, India, Saudi-Arabia, Afghanistan, Pakistan have a lower sex ratio
Age composition :
- It represents the number of people of different age groups
- This is an important indicator of population composition.
- Age 15-59 represent working population
- Age 60 or more represent ageing population.
- Age-sex pyramid represent structure of population refers to the number of female and males in different age group. Its shape reflects characteristics of population.
- Expanding populations : wide base ,triangular shapes ;indicate high birth rate e.g.: Bangladesh ,Nigeria ,Mexico
- Constant population : bell shaped , tapered toward top shows almost same birth-death rate Australia
- Declining population: narrow based and tapered top, population growth in developed country is almost zero or negative. Japan
RURAL URBAN COMPOSITION
- Rural areas are those where people are engaged in primary activities
- Urban areas are those when majority of the working population is engaged in non-primary activities.
- Sex-ratio in Asian urban is male dominated.
- Female-participation in farming is fairly high in India
- Reasons behind to discourage women to migrate from rural to urban areas : shortage of housing, high cost of living , paucity of job opportunities ,lack of security in cities
- In India denotes the percentage of population above 7 year of age who able to read, write and have the ability to do arithmetic calculation with understanding.
- Population of literate people in a country is indicator of
- Socio-economic development
- Standards of living
- Social-status of females
- Availabilities of educational facilities
- Policies of government
- Agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining are classified as primary activities.
- Manufacturing is classified as secondary activities.
- Transport, communication and other services are tertiary services.
- Jobs related to research and developing ideas are quaternary activities.
Populations engaged in these 4 sectors are indicator of good economy.