Skip to main content

NCERT 12 human geography chap 3: population composition

  1. People can be distinguished by their age, sex and place of residence.


  2. Other distinguishing attributes of the population are occupation, education and life-expectancy.


    SEX composition:





  3. The number of women and men in a country is an important demographic characteristic.
  4. The ratio between the number of women and men in the population is called sex-ratio.
    it is calculated in some country by this formula sex ratio = ( male population /female population )*1000 or the number of males per thousand females
  5. In India ,the sex ratio is worked out using the formula
    sex ratio = ( female population /male population) or the number of females per thousand males
  6. The sex-ratio is important information about status of women in a country.
  7. The world population reflects a sex ratio of 990 females per 1000 males.
  8. The highest sex-ratio is recorded in the world in Latvia which is 1187 females per 1000 males
  9. The lowest sex-ratio is recorded in the world in U.A.E which is 468 female per 1000 males.
  10. The world pattern of sex-ratio does not exhibit variations in the developed regions of the world.
  11. The sex-ratio is favorable for female in 139 countries. And unfavorable for females in 72 countries.
  12. Asia has a lower sex-ratio.
  13. China, India, Saudi-Arabia, Afghanistan, Pakistan have a lower sex ratio

    Age composition :
  14. It represents the number of people of different age groups
  15. This is an important indicator of population composition.
  16. Age 15-59 represent working population
  17. Age 60 or more represent ageing population.
  18. Age-sex pyramid represent structure of population refers to the number of female and males in different age group. Its shape reflects characteristics of population.
3 kind of mostly found age-sex pyramid :




  • Expanding populations : wide base ,triangular shapes ;indicate high birth rate e.g.: Bangladesh ,Nigeria ,Mexico


  • Constant population : bell shaped , tapered toward top shows almost same birth-death rate Australia

  • Declining population: narrow based and tapered top, population growth in developed country is almost zero or negative. Japan

RURAL URBAN COMPOSITION


  1. Rural areas are those where people are engaged in primary activities
  2. Urban areas are those when majority of the working population is engaged in non-primary activities.
  3. Sex-ratio in Asian urban is male dominated. 
  4. Female-participation in farming is fairly high in India
  5. Reasons behind to discourage women to migrate from rural to urban areas : shortage of housing, high cost of living , paucity of job opportunities ,lack of security in cities
  6. In India denotes the percentage of population above 7 year of age who able to read, write and have the ability to do arithmetic calculation with understanding.
  7. Population of literate people in a country is indicator of
                    

  • Socio-economic development
  • Standards of living
  • Social-status of females
  • Availabilities of educational facilities
  • Policies of government
  1. Agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining are classified as primary activities.
  2. Manufacturing is classified as secondary activities.
  3. Transport, communication and other services are tertiary services.
  4. Jobs related to research and developing ideas are quaternary activities.


  5. Populations engaged in these 4 sectors are indicator of good economy.




Comments

Popular posts from this blog

UNIT 13 FEATURES OF 73rd AND 74th CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT

Structure

13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities

13.0 LEARNING OUTCOME

After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.

13.1 INTRODUCTION

The revitalization of Pancha…

UNIT 1 CONCEPT, EVOLUTION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF DEMOCRATIC DECENTRALISATION

Structure

1.0 Learning outcome

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of Democratic Decentralisation

1.3 Evolution of Democratic Decentralisation

1.4 Significance of Democratic Decentralisation

1.5 Democratic Decentralisation in India

1.6 Conclusion

1.7 Key concepts

1.8 References and Further Reading

1.9 Activities

1.0 LEARNING OUTCOME

After studying this unit, you should be able to:

• Understand the concept of Democratic Decentralization;

• Know the evolution and significance of Democratic Decentralization; and

• Describe the Democratic Decentralization pattern in India.

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The dawn of 21st century is marked by decentralized governance both as a strategy and philosophy of brining about reforms and changes in democracies. These changes led to such virtues of transparency, responsiveness and accountability and ensures good governance. Today decentralization and democracy are the most significant themes in the development discourse. In the present contex…

General Studies :: Indian Polity #1

Constitutional evolution under British ruleRegulating Act 1773beginning of British parliamentary control over the East India Companysubordination of the presidencies of Bombay and Madras to BengalGovernor of Bengal made Governal-Generalcouncil of Governor-General establishedSupreme Court established in CalcuttaPitt’s India Act 1784commercial and political activities of the Company separatedestablished a board of control over the CompanyCharter Act 1813trade monopoly of the Company abolishedmissionaries allowed to preach in IndiaCharter Act 1833Governor-General of Bengal becomes Governor-General of Indiafirst Governor-General Lord William Bentickends commercial activities of the CompanyCharter Act 1853legislative and executive functions of the Governor-General’s council separatedopen competition for Indian Civil Services establishedIndian Council Act 1861establishes legislative councils at the centre, presidencies and provincesGovernor-General’s executive council to have Indians as non…