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GS question answer thread: from orkut part 1

  1. What is "Bella Centre"?

    Ans: Bella Center is the venue of the UN-sponsored Climate Summit in Copenhagen/Denmark.
    It is a very large exhibition and conference center.

  2. What is there inside Kyoto protocol?

    Ans: he Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at combating global warming. The UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty with the goal of achieving "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system

  3. Who wrote the book 'Slain by the System - India's Real Crisis?'(Hint the writer was in news recently)?

    Ans: the book is written by C B Muthamma...she was the first Indian lady diplomat. She died in October

  4. What is "Digital Electronic Eye"? (Hint: Noble this year)

    Ans: Digital Electronic Eye is the charge-coupled device, which is the "electronic eye" of the digital camera.

  5. What is the range of Dhanush?

    Ans: 350 Kilometers.

  6. What are 3D brain-density processors?

    Ans: processors with as many transistors per cm3 as there are neurons in the human brain r called 3D brain density processors recently IBM have planned to build 3D brain density processors with the help of Swiss.

  7. Who are 'Hilary Mantel' and 'Alice Munro'?

    Ans: Both of them are Man Booker prize winner
    in 2009.
    Hilary Mary Mantel won for her novel Wolf Hall and Alice Munro also won for her lifetime body of work

  8. Who was the First Indian Prime Minister to resign from Office?

    Ans: Morarji desai

  9. MTCR prohibits production of missiles beyond certain range. what is it?

    Ans: The United States and its G-7 partners formed the MTCR in 1987.
    the seven are
    Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States...
    now it has 34, i think..
    abbreviated as Missile Technology Control Regime

    coming to your answer the range should b GRTR than 300 km. and delivers a 500 kg payload
Fact Sheet

BUREAU OF INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AND NONPROLIFERATION

Washington, DC

[Also: fact sheets on MTCR Questions and Answers and the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation]

In 1987, seven concerned countries created the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) to restrict the proliferation of nuclear-capable missiles and related

Technology. The original participants in the Regime were Canada, France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In 1993, the focus

Of the Regime was expanded to include missiles for the delivery of chemical or biological weapons (CBW) as well as nuclear weapons.

The Regime's mandate was expanded in 2002 to include preventing terrorists from acquiring missiles and missile technology. In 2006-2007, the MTCR Partners

(members) reiterated their support for UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1540, which inter alia mandates all UN Member States to exercise effective export

controls over WMD, their means of delivery, and related materials. In 2008, the MTCR also recognized that more needs to be done to discourage development of

delivery systems for WMD, and agreed to actively encourage more countries to adopt missile export controls consistent with MTCR standards.

The MTCR is not a treaty, but a voluntary arrangement among member countries sharing a common interest in controlling missile proliferation. MTCR Partners have

committed to apply a common export control policy (MTCR Guidelines) to a common list (MTCR Annex) of controlled items, including virtually all key equipment and

technology needed for missile development, production, and operation. The Guidelines and Annex are implemented by each Partner in accordance with its national

legislation. In 2003, MTCR Partners made it a requirement that all members have "catch-all" export controls; these controls provide a legal basis to control the export

of items not included on a control list when they are destined for a missile program.

The MTCR Guidelines restrict transfers of "missiles" -- defined as rocket systems (including ballistic missiles, space launch vehicles, and sounding rockets) and

unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems (including cruise missiles, target drones, and reconnaissance drones) capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction

(WMD) -- and their related equipment and technology. The Regime places particular focus on unmanned delivery systems capable of delivering a payload of at least

500 kg to a distance of at least 300 km, so called "Category I" or "MTCR-class" systems.

The MTCR Annex of controlled items is divided into two sections:

Category I Annex items include complete rocket and unmanned air vehicle (i.e., "missile") systems, capable of delivering a payload of at least 500 kg to a

Range of at least 300 km, and their major complete subsystems, production facilities, and related technology. Exports of Category I items are subject to a

strong presumption of denial, except that transfers of specially designed production facilities for Category I items are expressly prohibited.

Category II Annex items include propulsion and propellant components, launch and ground support equipment, various other missile-related components, and

related technology, as well as certain other missile systems. Exports of Category II items are subject to case-by-case review against specified nonproliferation

factors, and are subject to a strong presumption of denial if the system is intended for WMD delivery.

MTCR export controls are not bans but regulatory efforts by individual Partners to prevent transfers of items that could contribute to delivery systems for WMD.

Licensing such exports is consistent with the MTCR's goal of curbing the flow of missile equipment and technology worldwide.

The MTCR Guidelines are open to all nations to implement, whether or not they are MTCR Partners. The United States encourages all governments too unilaterally

Adhere to the Guidelines.

MTCR List of Partners (as of February 2008)

Argentina (1993)

Australia (1990)

Austria (1991)

Belgium (1990)

Bulgaria (2004)

Brazil (1995)

Canada (1987)

Czech Republic (1998)

Denmark (1990)

Finland (1991)

France (1987)

Germany (1987)

Greece (1992)

Hungary (1993)

Iceland (1993)

Ireland (1992)

Italy (1987)

Japan (1987)

Luxembourg (1990)

Netherlands (1990)

New Zealand (1991)

Norway (1990)

Poland (1998)

Portugal (1992)

Republic of Korea (2001)

Russian Federation (1995)

South Africa (1995)

Spain (1990)

Sweden (1991)

Switzerland (1992)

Turkey (1997)

Ukraine (1998)

United Kingdom (1987)

United States of America (1987)

Unilateral Adherents to the MTCR

Israel (1992)

Romania (1992)

Slovakia (1994)

Republic of Macedonia (2003)
India (2008)
****************************************************
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