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Fundamentals of human-geography: Chapter 2::: The World Population :::: Distribution Growth Density

  1. A country is known by its people.
  2. The population of world is unevenly distributed.
  3. Patterns of population distribution and density help us to understand the demographic characteristics of any area.
  4. The term population refers to the way people are spaced over earth surface.
  5. 90 % of the world population lives in about 10 % of its lands area.
  6. The 10 most populous countries of the world contribute about 60% of the world's population.
  7. Of these 10 countries, 6 are located in Asia.
  8. The top 10 populous countries in world :

  • China
  • India
  • United states
  • Indonesia
  • Brazil
  • Pakistan
  • CLS
  • Bangladesh
  • Japan
  • Nigeria
  1. Each unit of land has limited capacity to support people living on it.
  2. Density of population = [population\area]

  3. Factors affecting the population distribution
    1. Geographical factor :

  • Availability of fresh water: it is vital for life. Denser population found near rich sources of fresh water like Indo-Gangatic plains and In Egypt near Nile River.
  • Landforms: people prefer flat plains and gentle slopes and dislike the mountain, hilly unregulated landforms to live. E.g.: Ganga plains are dense populated but Himalaya regions are scarcely populated.
  • Climate: extreme climate is not preferred while normal climate is liked most.
  • Soil: fertile soil attracts more people to live near it that support extensive agriculture.
  1. Economic factors :
  • Minerals: areas with mineral deposits attract more people to get employment and wealth. Katanga Zambia (copper mines) in Africa is good example of it.
  • Urbanization: cities prove better communication, education, health, employment and entertainment. Bombay is good example.
  • Industrialization : employment
  1. Social and cultural factors : religious places like Varanasi and Jerusalem
  1. Population growth : it is defined as " change in number of inhabitants of a territory during a specific period of time
  2. It may be positive or negative and expressed in term of numbers or in percentage (%age)
  3. It is indicator of economic development, social upliftment and historical and cultural background of the region.
  4. Components of population changes : birth ,death, migration

    Crude death rate ( CDR ) = D/P * 1000 D= number of deaths P= estimated mid-year population
    crude birth rate (CBR) = B/P*1000 B=number of birth
  5. Some basic concept of population geography :
  • Growth of population: change of population in particular area between two points of time is known as growth of population.
  • Growth rate of population: this is the change of population expressed in percentage
  • Natural growth of population: this is the population increased by difference between births and death in a particular region between two points of time.
    natural growth : birth-deaths
    actual growth of population : birth-death + ( migration to region -migration from region )
  • Positive growth of population : when [ birth + migration to region
    >death + migration from region

  • Negative growth of population : when [
    birth + migration to region

    < death + migration from region

  1. Migration: we people move from one place to another place for living purpose, is known as migration.
  2. The place from they move is known as place of origin and the place where they moved is known as place of destination.
  3. Migration may be interpreted as a spontaneous effort to balance between population and resources.
  4. It may be permanent, temporary or seasonal.
  5. It may be from urban to rural, rural to urban, urban to urban and rural to rural areas.
  6. Immigration: migrants who move into new place are called Immigrants.
  7. Emigration: migrants who move out of a place are called Emigrants.
  8. People migrate for a better economic and social life. There are 2 set of factors that influence ,migration
  • The push factor: makes the place of origin less attractive for reasons like
  • Unemployment
  • Poor living conditions
  • Political turmoil
  • Unpleasant climate
  • Natural disasters
  • epidemics
  • socio-economic backwardness
  • The pull factor: make the place of destination more attractive than the place of origin.


This figure show the population change over time.

  1. Demographic transition theory can be used to predict the future population of any reason.
  2. A small positive change is desirable in growing country but a big change creates many problems.
  3. There are preventive method available to control population.


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