- A country is known by its people.
- The population of world is unevenly distributed.
- Patterns of population distribution and density help us to understand the demographic characteristics of any area.
- The term population refers to the way people are spaced over earth surface.
- 90 % of the world population lives in about 10 % of its lands area.
- The 10 most populous countries of the world contribute about 60% of the world's population.
- Of these 10 countries, 6 are located in Asia.
- The top 10 populous countries in world :
- United states
- Each unit of land has limited capacity to support people living on it.
- Density of population = [population\area]
Factors affecting the population distribution
- Geographical factor :
- Geographical factor :
- Availability of fresh water: it is vital for life. Denser population found near rich sources of fresh water like Indo-Gangatic plains and In Egypt near Nile River.
- Landforms: people prefer flat plains and gentle slopes and dislike the mountain, hilly unregulated landforms to live. E.g.: Ganga plains are dense populated but Himalaya regions are scarcely populated.
- Climate: extreme climate is not preferred while normal climate is liked most.
- Soil: fertile soil attracts more people to live near it that support extensive agriculture.
- Economic factors :
- Minerals: areas with mineral deposits attract more people to get employment and wealth. Katanga Zambia (copper mines) in Africa is good example of it.
- Urbanization: cities prove better communication, education, health, employment and entertainment. Bombay is good example.
- Industrialization : employment
- Social and cultural factors : religious places like Varanasi and Jerusalem
- Population growth : it is defined as " change in number of inhabitants of a territory during a specific period of time
- It may be positive or negative and expressed in term of numbers or in percentage (%age)
- It is indicator of economic development, social upliftment and historical and cultural background of the region.
- Components of population changes : birth ,death, migration
Crude death rate ( CDR ) = D/P * 1000 D= number of deaths P= estimated mid-year population
crude birth rate (CBR) = B/P*1000 B=number of birth
- Some basic concept of population geography :
- Growth of population: change of population in particular area between two points of time is known as growth of population.
- Growth rate of population: this is the change of population expressed in percentage
- Natural growth of population: this is the population increased by difference between births and death in a particular region between two points of time.
natural growth : birth-deaths
actual growth of population : birth-death + ( migration to region -migration from region )
- Positive growth of population : when [ birth + migration to region
>death + migration from region
- Negative growth of population : when [
birth + migration to region
< death + migration from region
- Migration: we people move from one place to another place for living purpose, is known as migration.
- The place from they move is known as place of origin and the place where they moved is known as place of destination.
- Migration may be interpreted as a spontaneous effort to balance between population and resources.
- It may be permanent, temporary or seasonal.
- It may be from urban to rural, rural to urban, urban to urban and rural to rural areas.
- Immigration: migrants who move into new place are called Immigrants.
- Emigration: migrants who move out of a place are called Emigrants.
- People migrate for a better economic and social life. There are 2 set of factors that influence ,migration
- The push factor: makes the place of origin less attractive for reasons like
- The pull factor: make the place of destination more attractive than the place of origin.
This figure show the population change over time.
- Demographic transition theory can be used to predict the future population of any reason.
- A small positive change is desirable in growing country but a big change creates many problems.
- There are preventive method available to control population.