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Fundamentals of human-geography: Chapter 1::: Nature & scope of Human Geography

  1. The Earth comprise 2 components :    
  • Nature ( physical surroundings )
  • Livings ( animal, plants, micro-organism which include Human-species also)
  1. In Physical Geography , we study physical surroundings(environment )
  2. In Human-Geography we study about "the relation between physical/natural world and human-beings, the spatial distribution of human-distribution and how they come about, the social and economic differences between different parts of the world ".
  3. Some Definitions of human Geography
  • " Human geography is the synthetic
    study of relationship between human societies and earth's surface " : Ratzel
  • "Human geography is the study of "the changing relationship between the unresting man and the unstable Earth." : Ellen C. Semple Dynamism is key word in Semple's definition
  • "Conception resulting from a more synthetic knowledge of the physical law governing our Earth and of the relations between the living beings which inhibit it ". : Paul Vidal de la Blache Human
    offers a new conception of the inter-relationships between the Earth and Human-beings.
  1. Human beings interact with their physical environment with help of technology.
  2. Technology indicates the level of cultural development of the society.
  3. The type of interaction of primitive human-society and strong force of nature was termed as environmental determinism.

  4. Broad stages and thrust of Human Geography


Broad features
Colonial period
Exploration and description
Imperial and trade interest prompted the discovery and exploration of new areas. An encyclopedic description of the area formed an important aspect of the geographer's account.
Colonial period
Regional Analysis
Elaborate descriptions of all aspect of a region were undertaken. The idea was that all the regions were part of a whole Earth; understanding the parts in totality would to an understanding of the whole.
1930s through the inter-war world
Areal differentiation
The focus was on identifying the uniqueness of any region

and understanding how and why it was different from

Later 1950s to the later 1960s
Spatial organization
Marked by the use of computers and sophisticated

Statistical tools. Laws of physics were often applied to

Map and analyze human phenomena. This phase was

Called the quantitative revolution. The main objective was

to identify mappable patterns for different human


Emergence of

humanistic, radical

and behavioral

Discontentment with the quantitative revolution and its

dehumanized manner of doing geography led to the

emergence of three new schools of thought of human

Geography in the 1970s. Human geography was made more

relevant to the socio-political reality by the emergence of

These schools of thought.

Post-modernism in

The grand generalizations and the applicability of universal

Theories to explain the human conditions were questioned.

The importance of understanding each local context in

its own right was emphasized.

  1. Human Geography and Sister Disciplines of Social Sciences

Field of human geography
Interface with sister disciplines of social sciences
Social geography
Behavioral geography
Geography of social well-being
Geography of leisure
Cultural geography
Gender geography

Historical geography
Medical geography
Social science – sociology
Welfare economics

Sociology ,Anthropology ,Women's welfare
Urban geography
Urban studies & planning
Political geography
Electoral geography
Military geography
Political science
Military science
Population geography
Settlement geography
Urban/Rural planning
Economic geography
Geography of resources
Geography of agriculture
Geography of industries
Geography of marketing

Geography of tourism

Geography of international trade
Resource economics
Agricultural sciences
Industrial economics
Business studies ,economics ,commerce
Tourism and travel management
International trade


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