- The Earth comprise 2 components :
- Nature ( physical surroundings )
- Livings ( animal, plants, micro-organism which include Human-species also)
- In Physical Geography , we study physical surroundings(environment )
- In Human-Geography we study about "the relation between physical/natural world and human-beings, the spatial distribution of human-distribution and how they come about, the social and economic differences between different parts of the world ".
- Some Definitions of human Geography
- " Human geography is the synthetic
study of relationship between human societies and earth's surface " : Ratzel
- "Human geography is the study of "the changing relationship between the unresting man and the unstable Earth." : Ellen C. Semple Dynamism is key word in Semple's definition
- "Conception resulting from a more synthetic knowledge of the physical law governing our Earth and of the relations between the living beings which inhibit it ". : Paul Vidal de la Blache Human
offers a new conception of the inter-relationships between the Earth and Human-beings.
- Human beings interact with their physical environment with help of technology.
- Technology indicates the level of cultural development of the society.
- The type of interaction of primitive human-society and strong force of nature was termed as environmental determinism.
Broad stages and thrust of Human Geography
|Period ||approaches||Broad features |
|Colonial period ||Exploration and description ||Imperial and trade interest prompted the discovery and exploration of new areas. An encyclopedic description of the area formed an important aspect of the geographer's account.|
|Colonial period ||Regional Analysis ||Elaborate descriptions of all aspect of a region were undertaken. The idea was that all the regions were part of a whole Earth; understanding the parts in totality would to an understanding of the whole.|
|1930s through the inter-war world ||Areal differentiation ||The focus was on identifying the uniqueness of any region|
and understanding how and why it was different from
|Later 1950s to the later 1960s||Spatial organization ||Marked by the use of computers and sophisticated|
Statistical tools. Laws of physics were often applied to
Map and analyze human phenomena. This phase was
Called the quantitative revolution. The main objective was
to identify mappable patterns for different human
|Discontentment with the quantitative revolution and its|
dehumanized manner of doing geography led to the
emergence of three new schools of thought of human
Geography in the 1970s. Human geography was made more
relevant to the socio-political reality by the emergence of
These schools of thought.
|The grand generalizations and the applicability of universal|
Theories to explain the human conditions were questioned.
The importance of understanding each local context in
its own right was emphasized.
Human Geography and Sister Disciplines of Social Sciences
|Field of human geography ||Sub-fields||Interface with sister disciplines of social sciences |
|Social geography |
|Urban geography |
|Urban studies & planning|
|Political geography |
|Population geography ||----------------------------------||Demography|
|Settlement geography ||-----------------------------------||Urban/Rural planning |