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Friday, January 22, 2010

Andhra Satavahanas

Andhra Satavahanas

ORIGIN :
(a) Aitrareya Brahmana puts the Adhras beyond the pale of Aryanism.

(b) Nasik Prasasti lays claim to Gautmi as a brahamana.

(c) Puranas called them their services to Aryanism they were - admitted to the Aryan folk after their services to Arynanism - there is a reference to them in the Asoka inscriptions as well as by Megasthenes.

(d) Some call them Brahmins - some, mixed Brahmins of Naga origin, aqnd some, protectors of Brahmins,

(e) Numismatic evidence points to the origin in Western Deccan and Madhya Pradesh. Epigraphic and literary evidence points to their western origin - the figure of the founder of the dynasty is found in paition in western Deccan.

(f) Epigraphic evidence refers to them as Satavahanas, not as Andhras.

(g) Possibly, Andhra is the Tribal name : Satavahana, the dynastic name, and satakarni, the Surname.

SOURCES :
(a) Puranas - mention 30 kings,.

(b) Aitrareya Brahmina.

(c) Literary sources -- Gunadhya's Brihatkatha. And Leelavati, which deals with the military exploits of Hala.

(d) Nasik inscription of Gautami Balsari.

(e) Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela for inferring the date of the first ruler.

(f) Sanchi inscription extent of the Satavahanas kingdom till Malwa.

CHORONOLOGY:
(a) The founder war one Simukha - probably the first century B.C. - supplanted the lingering Sunga and Kanva rulers - rule of the dynasty was for 300 years. Simuka was succeed by Krishna or Kanha.

(b) The next known king was Satakarni - the kingdom expanded - probably defeated by Kharavela - performed Ashvamedha Pratishthana was the capital - confusion after him. Kshaharatas or sakas occupied parts of Maharashtra.

(c) Hala is the 17th in the list of Puranas - his book is saptasataka - deals with both erortic and philosophical themes. Gundhaya's Brihatkatha deals with the rivalry between Prikrit and Sanskrit.

(d) Beginning from 25 A.D. to 75 A.D. there was confusion - saka eruption.

(e) The greatest ruler was Gautamiputra Satakarni. He was the 23rd according to Pupranas - around 72 A.D. the Nasik inscription of his mother talks of his being the destroyer of Sakas, Yavanas and Kshaharata - also says that he crushed the pride of Kshatrias - overran konan, Saurashtra, Bihar and Malva. A Philanthropist, he maintained Arya Dharma - put an end to Varna - Sankara - some regard him to be Vikramaditya. Built the city of Benakataka and assumed the titles of Raja Raja and Svamin.

(f) The next known ruler was Pulumayi II around 96 A.D. - first ruled Andhra country - Vaijyanti and Amaravati famous cities - Satavahanas a naval power - probably overseas colonisation - large number of inscription.

(g) The next know ruler was Vasishtiputra Batakarni of sri Pulumayi - married the daughter of Rudradaman, a Saka ruler -- however Rudradaman twice defeated him. Also, Sri Pulumayi lost to Chastana, son of Bhosmotika.

(h) Next known ruler was Yajna Sri Satakarni - around 160 A.D. - Malva, Kathiawad and North Konkan - inscription found in Konkan and Krishna - coints found in Gujarat and Kathiawad - defeated Kshatapas.

(i) After the declined Salankeyanas ruled over the Satavahana territory.

IMPORTANCE :
(1) The Very area over which they ruled was important connecting link between link between northern and southern India - Andhras were instrumental in spreading Aryan culture to the south.

(2) Their colonizing activities spread to South-East Asia - influence of Amaravati sculptures on South-East Asian sculptures.

(3) They did maintain contact between India and the Western world in matters of trade.

(4) They were instrumental in curbing the penetration of Sakas further into south.

(5) Some of the later southern dynastic like Ikshvakus, Kadambas, Tarikutakas and Abhiras continued the Satavahan tradition and the Pallsvas and the Chalukya claimed the tradition of Satavahanas.

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