Analysis of Census 2001
The world population is estimated to have grown at an annual rate of 1.4% during 1990-2000.While China registered a growth rate of just 1% in the decade; India's growth rate of population in the decade 1991-2000 was 1.9%.China's growth rate is almost at par with that of the USA.
Distinct phases can be discerned in the population growth of India during 1901-2001.
|1921-1951||Steady growth|| |
|1951-1981||Rapid and high growth|| |
|1981-2001||High growth but signs of slowing down|| |
The picture of the population growth in India accords well with the theory of demographic transition and the country is now believed to have entered fifth phase characterized by rapidly declining fertility. In absolute terms the population of India has shown a huge increase during the decade 1991-2001 however the change in the net addition has shown a steady declining trend over the decades from 1961.The percentage decadal growth during 1991-2001 has shown the sharpest decline since independence.
- Data at glance
- Scheduled Tribe Population
- Scheduled Caste Population
- Religious groups
- Percentage of Child Population in the age-group 0-6 to total population
- Growth of Urbanization
- Towns and cities
Data at Glance
- People - 1,028,610,328
- Male - 532,156,772
- Female - 496,453,556
- Urban population -286,119,689
- Rural population -742,490,639
- Urban population(%) -27.78
- Sex ratio -933 males per 1000 males
- Density- 324 persons per sq km
- Decadal Population Growth (1991-2001)
- Absolute - 185,222,440
- Percentage- 21.54
- Population (0-6 years)
- Persons - 163,819,614
- Boys- 84,999,203
- Girls- 78,820,411
- Total population (%) - 15.9
- Sex ratio- 927
- Males- 336,533,716
- Females- 224,154,081
- Literacy rate (age 7+)
- Males - 75.2 %
- Females -53.6%
- People- 64.8%
Uttar Pradesh has the largest population followed by Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh in the same order. These five states represent half of the country's population. More than Â¼ th of people live in two states of UP and Maharashtra alone. The three southern states of Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu together have fewer people than Uttar Pradesh alone.
The uneven nature of the distribution of the population becomes more evident when we try to find out as to what proportion of India's population lives in each state of the Indian Union. This may be described as the Index of Concentration. This index is 16.16% for UttarPradesh, 0.19% for Nagaland, 0.23% for Megalaya and 0.99% for Jammu and Kashmir. The state of West Bengal accommodates 7.79% of the country's population while the shares of the agriculturally developed states of Punjab and Haryana are 2.73% and 2.05% respectively.A closer examination of the census data shows that the states of the Indian Union have an unequal share not only in population but also in area. There is little relationship between area and population. The largest state in India Rajasthan accounts for 11% of the country's total area and has 5.5% of the country's total population. Madhya Pradesh with an area share of about 10% has a population share of 5.7%.However Uttar Pradesh with 7.6% of total area has a population share of over 16%.
The density has increased by 21.3% in 2001 as compared to 1991.Large increase in the density of population puts pressure on the limited resources available and adversely affects the quality of life.
In India there is large variation across the states and Union territories in terms of density due to the wide differences in climate and resources.Arunchal Pradesh with a density of 13 at one extreme and Delhi with a density of 9,340 at the other. While all the states and Union territories have shown an increase in density there are wide variations in the rates of increase. West Bengal is most densely populated state followed by Bihar and Kerala.
The sex ratio of 933 for the country is an improvement over the figure for 1991.The sex-ratio in India has always been unfavorable to females. It showed a continuous decline from 1901 to 1941, improved marginally in 1951 then dropped steeply to 930 in 1971.The sharpest decline is seen during the period 1961-1971 after which the sex ratio has been fluctuating around this figure.
Some significant features:
- For the first time there is a decline in the absolute number of illiterates during a decade (1991-2001).This is a major shift in improving the status of literacy in the country.
- The major contribution to the decrease in the number of illiterates came from Andhra Pradesh,Uttar Pradesh,Maharashtra,Rajasthan,Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.These six states together account for three-fourths of the percentage decrease in the total number of illiterates in the country while they share half of the country's population.
- In eight states and UTs the number of illiterates grew in the decade.
- In case of male illiterates there is a decline in the absolute numbers from 1991 to 2001.Kerala has also added to the number of male illiterates.
- The gap in the male-female literacy rates was reduced in 1991 and was further reduced in 2001.
- Kerala with a literacy rate of 90.92% holds the first rank in the country followed by Mizoram and Lakshadeep.Bihar with a literacy rate of 47.0% ranks last in the country.
- Kerala occupies first position in both male and female literacy rates.Bihar has lowest literacy rates for both males and females.
- Religion -wise Literacy rate among Jains is the highest at 94.1% followed by Christians 80.3% and Buddhists 72.7%.Hindus and Sikhs have marginally higher literacy rate than the national average. Muslims have literacy rate of 59.1%.The lowest literacy has been recorded for other religions and persuasions at 47%.
Scheduled Tribe Population
According to 2001 census STs are largest in MP followed by Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and Jharkhand.The ST formed the largest proportion of the total population in Lakshadeep, Mizoram and Nagaland.
The decadal population growth between the census years 1981-1991 in tribal population has been higher at 31.64% than that for the entire population at 23.51% however during the census years 1991-2001 it has been 24.45% against the growth rate of 22.66% for the entire population.
The sex-ratio among STs stand at 977 per 1000 males. In all states except AP and Tamil Nadu and Uttaranchal the ST sex-ratio as per 2001 census was more women centric.The literacy rate for STs increased from 29.62% to 47.10 %.The female literacy rate among tribals increased from 18.19% to 34.76% in 2001.
Scheduled Caste Population
There are 6.6 million belonging to other religions and persuasions including tribal religions which are not part of the six main religions. About 7 lakh (0.7 million) persons have not stated their religion.
The adjusted growth rate of Hindu population has come down from 22.8% in 1981-1991 to 20.0% in 1991-2001.Similar trends are observed among Buddhists which declined from 36% in 1981-1991 to 23.2% during 1991-2001.The Muslim growth rate has declined from 32.9% during 1981-1991 to 29.3% during 1991-2001 while for Christians it would increase from 17% to 22.1% during 1991-2001.Jain population also has registered growth rate of 26.0% against very low growth rate of 4.6% during 1981-1991.
Percentage of Child Population in the age-group 0-6
Growth of Urbanization
Towns and cities
|Attached: Analysis of Census 2001|