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Accountability and controls part 3

Mechanism outside parliamentary procedure:

  1. Committees appointed by parliament: the estimates committee exercises PRE-Budgetary control and examines the fresh demands of grants only. It examines whether the estimates are correct or not. The economy and efficiency of proposal and give recommendations to prevent the wrong in is an effective deterrent because of the fear that somebody is checking the estimates.
Public accounts committee is for post budgetary control. Offers the expenditure has been examines whether the money was spent under the proper head. Whether the money was legally available to the person who spent it. Whether the money is spent with due economy, efficiency and wisdom. And whether the rules and regulations are observed or not. It's is main function is to examine controller and auditor general reports. Committee on public undertaking (CoPU) examines the functioning and expenditure of public sector undertaking.

Advantages of committee system:
1.committees is small bodies therefore they can move or travel and can physically inspect the documents.
2. Civil servants can be summoned and can also be cross-examined by those committees .therefore it ensures accountability and control over civil servants because civil servant cannot be called on the floor of the house.
3. These committees continue to meet even during off-session periods. The discussions are fruitful because there is no time-limit for their discussions.
4. The members of the committees function in the same area for a long time, therefore they develop expertise.

  1. Audit System: audit is an important mechanism of legislative control over financial administration. It is an instrument of accountability of admin to the legislative .audit is an examination of accounts to discover and report to the legislature any unauthorized, illegal or irregular expenditure and any unsound financial practices on the part of admin .Its objective is to see that expenditure is incurred with the sanctions of the competent authority and the expenditure is made for the legislative .CAG ( controller and Auditor General ,in this sense ,is an agent of parliament .it conducts audit on behalf of the parliament.

    IN THE USA     , under presidential form of Government, the "Theory of separation of power " is to a great extent , applied under it. Executive and legislative organs both are separate and independent. Executive consists of the president and his secretaries. The legislative the congress consist of the lower house (House of representative) and the upper house (The Senate).

    Executive does not sit in the legislature and is not responsible to the legislature for its policies and actions. The tenure of the president is fixed. Therefore no control is through questions and motions.

    Congress exercises control over admin through following tools:
    1. Congress very often creates organisations like independent regulatory commissions which are directly responsible to it under specific statute.

  2. Congress creates various executive departments, commissions, boards and other administrative agencies. These all come under the control of congress.
    3. The congress appoints a number of committees to investigate various matters of importance pertaining to the actions of the executives. These congressional committees go into the working of the departments and are often dreaded by them
  3. Congress makes laws, amendments and also repeal the laws
  4. The federal budget is approved by the congress thoroughly examined /revised by its committees and sub-committees.
  5. Congress examines the accounts and audit reports.
  6. Senate enjoys power of confirming higher appointments made by the president.
  7. Congress has the power to impeach president on the grand's of TREAON or CORRUPTION.

  8. Congress requires the administrative agencies to report their past actions and future plans to its committees or to it as a whole.

    Conclusion: The congressional control is limited and restricted in nature and scope.
    Limitations and ineffective of legislative control over admin:
    legislative control is more theoretical and in reality not as effective as it ought to be because of following reasons.
    1. Parliament /legislature have limited time. It sits in particular sessions only. It also lacks expertise.
    2. Parliamentarians are layman and they cannot understand the technical nature of grants/demands. Therefore the control is too general, too broad and not specific and detailed.

    3. Legislative leadership is with the executive (ministers and government) .therefore the control is ineffective.

    4. Size of parliament is too large and unmanageable .therefore discussions are not fruitful.

    5. Most of the debates and discussions are of political nature, not based on merit.

    6. The budget is passed despite the considerable opposition .therefore there is no impact of such political discussions.

    7. Majority support in the legislative is enjoyed by the executive; hence the decisions are taken despite the resistance.

    8. Committee's do the post marten work. They examine the issues when the wrongs are already committed.

    9. Guillotine procedure clearly indicates the weakness of legislative control .actually legislature cannot discuss all the demand of grants due to paucity of time. So the undicussed demands are clubbed together and passed without any discussion and voting. This is called Guillotine.

    10. Lack of strong and steady opposition, further weakens the legislative controls.

    Conclusion: Despite these limitations, the presence of opposition parties puts some kind of checks on wrong policies / statements /functions. The legislative procedure .The legislative procedure is address to the public through media which provides effectives indirect control. Further control should be up to a certain extent only because if no control, admin may become insensitive and if it is excessive, it may curb administrative initiative. Hence balanced approach is the best in which control must be effective (not theoretical only but real also).

    Questions asked from this topic:

    1997. q-5(a) "the controls exercised over admin by the legislature are, in sum of greater theoretical than practical than practical efficiency." comment --- 20 marks

    Next part 4 is displayed in next coming post

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    एक वृद्ध दंपति को लगने लगा कि उनकी याददा6त कमजोर हो चली है। यह सुनि6चित करने के लिये कि उन्हें कुछ नहीं हुआ है, वे डॉक्टर के पास गये।
    डॉक्टर ने बारीकी से उनका परीक्षण किया और बताया कि उन्हें कोई बीमारी नहीं है। बुढ़ापे में इस तरह के लक्षण स्वाभाविक हैं। उसने उन्हें महत्वपूर्ण कार्यों को लिखकर रखने की सलाह दी ताकि वे कोई जरूरी काम न भूलें।
    वृद्ध दंपति ने डॉक्टर का धन्यवाद किया और घर चले गये। उस रात को टीवी देखते समय पति उठकर कहीं जाने लगा तो पत्नी ने पूछा - ''कहां जा रहे हो ?'' उसने जवाब दिया - ''रसोईघर में''। ''मेरे लिये एक कप चाय लाओगे ?'' - पत्नी ने कहा। ''ठीक है, ले आऊंगा।'' ''मेरे खयाल से तुम इसे नोट कर लो नहीं तो भूल जाओगे।'' पत्नी ने कहा। ''नहीं भूलूंगा, प्रिय'' - पति ने जवाब दिया। ''ठीक है, मेरे लिये कुछ खाने को भ्आना। जैसे अालू चिप्स'' । ''ठीक है , ले आऊंगा।'' ''मुझे लगता है तुम लिख लेते तो ठीक था। कहीं भूल न जाओ।'' पत्नी ने फिर आग्रह किया। ''नहीं भूलूंगा प्रिय । मुझे तुम्हारे लिये एक कप चाय और आलू चिप्सहै । ठीक है ऌतना तो मैं याद रख ही सकता हूं। ''

    लगभग आधे घण्टे बाद पति महोदय एक कटोरे में आइसक्रीम और एक प्लेट में आमलेट लेकर हाजिर हुये। पत्नी यह देखते ही आग बबूला होते हुये चिल्लाई - ''तुमसे कहा था कि लिखकर ले जाओ वरना भूल जाओगे। बताओ मेरे आलू के परांठे कहां है ?''


    इंटेलिजेंस ब्यूरो में एक उच्च पद हेतु भर्ती की प्रक्रिया चल रही थी। अंतिम तौर पर केवल तीन उम्मीदवार बचे थे जिनमें से किसी एक का चयन किया जाना था। इनमें दो पुरुष थे और एक महिला।
    फाइनल परीक्षा के रूप में कर्तव्य के प्रति उनकी निष्ठा की जांच की जानी थी। पहले आदमी को एक कमरे में ले जाकर परीक्षक ने कहा - ''हम यह सुनिश्चित करना चाहते हैं कि तुम हर हाल में हमारे निर्देशों का पालन करोगे चाहे कोई भी परिस्थिति क्यों न हो।'' फिर उसने उसके हाथ में एक बंदूक पकड़ाई और दूसरे कमरे की ओर इशारा करते हुये कहा - ''उस कमरे में तुम्हारी पत्नी बैठी है। जाओ और उसे गोली मार दो।''
    ''मैं अपनी पत्नी को किसी भी हालत में गोली नहीं मार सकता''- आदमी ने कहा।
    ''तो फिर तुम हमारे किसी काम के नहीं हो। तुम जा सकते हो।'' - परीक्षक ने कहा।
    अब दूसरे आदमी को बुलाया गया। ''हम यह सुनिश्चित करना चाहते हैं कि तुम हर हाल में हमारे निर्देशों का पालन करोगे चाहे कोई भी परिस्थिति क्यों न हो।'' कहकर परीक्षक ने उसके हाथ में एक बंदूक पकड़ाई और दूसरे कमरे की ओर इशारा करते हुये कहा - ''उस कमरे में तुम्हारी पत्नी बैठी है। जाओ और उसे गोली मार दो।'' आदमी उस कमरे में गया और पांच मिनट बाद आंखों में आंसू लिये वापस आ गया। ''मैं अपनी प्यारी पत्नी को गोली नहीं मार सका। मुझे माफ कर दीजिये। मैं इस पद के योग्य नहीं हूं।''
    अब अंतिम उम्मीदवार के रूप में केवल महिला बची थी। उन्होंने उसे भी बंदूक पकड़ाई और उसी कमरे की तरफ इशारा करते हुये कहा - ''हम यह सुनिश्चित करना चाहते हैं कि तुम हर हाल में हमारे निर्देशों का पालन करोगी चाहे कोई भी परिस्थिति क्यों न हो। उस कमरे में तुम्हारा पति बैठा है। जाओ और जाकर उसे गोली से उड़ा दो।'' महिला ने बंदूक ली और कमरे के अंदर चली गई। कमरे के अंदर घुसते ही फायरिंग की आवाजें आने लगीं । लगभग 11 राउंड फायर के बाद कमरे से चीखपुकार, उठापटक की आवाजें आनी शुरू हो गईं। यह क्रम लगभग पन्द्रह मिनटों तक चला उसके बाद खामोशी छा गई।
    लगभग पांच मिनट बाद कमरे का दरवाजा खुला और माथे से पसीना पोंछते हुये महिला बाहर आई। बोली - ''तुम लोगों ने मुझे बताया नहीं था कि बंदूक में कारतूस नकली हैं। मजबूरन मुझे उसे पीट-पीट कर मारना पड़ा।''  


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13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


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