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Thursday, January 28, 2010

Accountability and control part 2

Built in technique in parliamentary procedure
general techniques – employed for both financial and other matters:

Law making: Under the concept of delegated legislation, parliamentary lays down the policies or laws in broad and general terms (in skeleton form) and authorizes the executive to make detailed rules and regulations. But the condition is that these delegated legislations are to be placed before parliament for its examinations .through is condition, parliament exercises control over admin.
2. Questions: it is a very powerful technique of effective control. A question is a request made by a member of legislative for an oral/written explanation from the concerned minister with a notice. With a notice about 10 days (shorts notice).Almost any act of the Government (or the Admin) can be made subject of a question.

On the floor of the house, it is the minister who answers the questions, but the answers are actually prepared by OFFICIALS of the concerned department. Therefore it keeps the department on its jobs.
It becomes cautions and careful. It requires records keeping of every transactions balance questions can be asked on most trivial detail also.

Formally, the object is merely to elicit information, but in reality, it is a patent weapon to focus attention on the failure and abuses of authority grievances of people.

3. Motions and resolutions:

when an M.P feels that a particular matter or report ought to be discussed in house. A motion has to be brought before the house, but a notion has to be given before that while moving the motion, the members can speak or discuss the issues.

Resolutions are contain kinds of motions. They are of two kinds

first: which recommend a particular course of action to the government.

Second: which seek to ensure Ans individual minister or whole minister's member can move resolutions on a matter of public interest.

Through these two tools, administration remains alert and cautions because of fear of giving answers to the ministers.

4. Debates and Discussions:
these are the core of parliamentary proceedings. These debates /discussions are held in many form and on many (numerous) occasions such as passage of bills/budget/motions and president's speech. They may ampel the government to certain or defend particular issues of their policy.

II Specific techniques specifically for financial control:

  1. Budgetary system: it is the most important techniques of financial control over the admin. The discussions and voting before the budget raise various issues including the cases of maladministration.
  2. Demands of Grants: these are estimates of expenditure (not those specified for consolidated fund) presented to lok-sabha in the form of Demand of Grants. Then debates on it take place in upper and lower, both houses.

  3. Supplementary ,additional and excess grants
    these are over the original demands .they are required if the amount authorized for current financial years is Insufficient for the purpose during that year or there is a need for additional expenditure for new sources not mentioned in the Budget.
The procedure is similar to regular grants .They is treated by the house with utmost caution or even with resentment because they are relaxation of parliamentary control. 

4.Consolidated fund: these are certain expenditures charged on consolidated fund which are NOT submitted to the vote of parliament, but these can be Discussion on them.  
5.Cut motions: The purpose of cut-motion is to discuss the policy behind the matter to ventilate the Grievances or to suggest economics. They are of three kinds viz policy cut, token cut, Economy cut .After discussion they are put to vote.  
6.Appropriation Bill: when demand for grants are about for the appropriation bill authorities the withdrawal of funds from consolidated fund for both votable and non-votable provides an occasion for a full-fledged discussion on topics chosen by various political parties.  
7.Vote on Account: it is a grant approved by the parliament in Advance of the detailed examination of various demands presented to meet its temporary or other running expenditure. They are also passed after detailed discussion. Here cut-motion can be applied.  
8.Vote of credit: it is for meeting an unexpected demand upon the nations 'resources because of magnitude of the source or the indefinite character of the service. These demands cannot be stated with detail .appropriation act is again essential for passing such grants.  
9..Re-appropriation: these are internal transfers or chifts from one head to another head. These are also approved by parliament.  
10.Money-bill: this is introduced only on recommendations of president. They are also potent tools of parliamentary control over admin.


Next is : Mechanism outside parliamentary procedure

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