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olar Satellite Launch Vehicle
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) built its first Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) in the early 90s. The 45 m tall PSLV with a lift-off mass of 295 tonne, had its maiden success on October 15, 1994, when it launched India's IRS-P2 remote sensing satellite into a Polar Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO) of 820 km altitude. Since its first successful launch in 1994, PSLV has launched nine Indian Remote Sensing satellites as well as two micro satellites HAMSAT and IMS-1 built by ISRO, a recoverable space capsule SRE-1, and fourteen small satellites for foreign customers into polar Sun Synchronous Orbits. Besides, it has launched one Indian meteorological satellite Kalpana-1 into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). PSLV has emerged as ISRO's workhorse launch vehicle and proved its reliability and versatility by scoring continuous successes in launching multiple payloads to both SSO as well as GTO.

Considering the maturity of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) demonstrated through various performances, PSLV is chosen for the first lunar mission. The upgraded version of PSLV viz., PSLV-XL (PSLV-C11) is used to inject the 1380 kg mass spacecraft into a 255 x 22860 km orbit.

PSLV has four stages, using solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately. Six strap-on motors augment the first stage thrust. PSLV-XL is the upgraded version of PSLV. In PSLV-XL, the six strap-on motors carry 4 tonne more propellant compared to PSLV; There is also an increase in the length of each strap-on.



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13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


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1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of Democratic Decentralisation

1.3 Evolution of Democratic Decentralisation

1.4 Significance of Democratic Decentralisation

1.5 Democratic Decentralisation in India

1.6 Conclusion

1.7 Key concepts

1.8 References and Further Reading

1.9 Activities


After studying this unit, you should be able to:

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